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How does a Loader Work?

Views: 65     Author: Fullwon     Publish Time: 2019-06-27      Origin: Site

How does a Loader Work?

The loader is an earth-rock construction machine widely used in road, railway, construction, hydro-power, port, mining and other construction projects. It is mainly used for shovel loading bulk materials such as soil, sand, lime, coal, etc. Different auxiliary work devices can be used for loading and unloading of bulldozers, lifting and other materials such as wood.

In the road construction, the loader is used for the filling and excavation of the sub-grade engineering, the aggregate of the asphalt mixture and the aggregate and loading of the cement concrete yard. In addition, you can carry out operations such as pushing soil, leveling the ground, and pulling other machinery. Because the loader has the advantages of fast operation speed, high efficiency, good maneuverability and light operation, it has become one of the main types of earth and stone construction in engineering construction.

Loader major components

The major components included in a loader are the engine (diesel in almost all cases), the hydraulic components (such as pumps, motors and valves) and the transmission components (gearbox, axles, wheels/tracks, pumps, motors, etc.). The engine runs both the hydraulics and the transmission, and these in turn move the front attachment (a bucket, forks, sweeper, etc.) to manipulate the material which we are handling (sand, gravel, cereal, manure or anything else) and the wheels or tracks to move the machine around the job site.

Loader classification

Commonly used single bucket loaders are classified according to engine power, walking structure, and loading method.

Engine power

1. The power is less than 74kw for small loaders

2. The power is 74~147kw for medium loader

3. the power is 147 ~ 515kw for large loaders

Walking structure

1.Tire type: light weight, fast speed, flexible and efficient, and not easy to damage the road surface.

2.Crawler type: grounding pressure is small, low center of gravity, good stability, strong adhesion, high traction, low speed, relatively poor flexibility, high cost, easy to damage the road when walking.

Loading and unloading method

1. Front unloading type: simple structure, reliable work, good vision, suitable for various working places, and widely used;

2.The rear unloading type: front end loading, rear end unloading, high work efficiency, poor safety of operation


Selection principle

1. Model: It is mainly selected according to the working occasion and use. Generally, work is carried out in quarries and soft bases, and tire loaders are often used with snow chains.

2. power: generally use engineering machinery with diesel engines, operating in special areas, such as altitudes above 3000m, special high-profile diesel engines should be used.

3. When selecting the loader, we must fully consider the braking performance of the loader, including multiple brakes, parking brakes and emergency brakes. The driving mechanism of the brake is generally a urging device, and the power source thereof is compressed air, gas capping oil and hydraulic type.

Commonly used is the gas top oil brake system, generally using a dual-circuit brake system to improve driving safety.


1. The operator should be familiar with the various performances, structures, technical maintenance, operation methods, and operation of the loader before driving and working.

2. When unloading into the car, the bucket must be lifted to a height that does not touch the car's baffle. Strictly prevent the bucket from hitting the car. It is strictly forbidden to pass the bucket over the top of the car cab.

3.Automatic deceleration is used when going downhill. It is not allowed to step on the clutch pedal to prevent the power from slipping.

4.When the loader is working, no one is allowed to stand in front of the loader. During the driving process, the bucket is not allowed to carry people.

5. When the operator leaves the driving position, the bucket must be grounded, the engine is turned off, and the power is turned off.

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