Views: 97 Author: Fullwon Publish Time: 2019-07-24 Origin: Site
The drilling rig is a complete set of heavy machinery equipment for oil drilling. It is the largest, heaviest and indispensable equipment in various mechanical equipment in the oil field. It is no exaggeration to say that the well drilling rig is the king of the equipment in oil and gas fields. With the development of the petroleum industry, drilling rigs are also constantly developing, drilling capacity is getting stronger and stronger, power is getting bigger and bigger, and the transmission is more and more advanced, mechanization and automation are getting higher and higher. So what is drilling rigs current situation at home and abroad?
1.Development status of foreign oil rigs
1) Types tend to diversify
In recent years, different types of oil drilling rigs have been developed according to well environment differences and drilling process needs, such as desert drilling rigs, offshore drilling rigs, shallow sea or beach drilling rigs, polar drilling rigs, urban drilling rigs, seismic rigs, and all terrain drilling rigs, helicopter hoisting rigs and land drilling rigs, etc.; Slave drilling rigs, inclined well drilling rigs, small borehole drilling rigs, special deep well drilling rigs, self-propelled drilling rigs, automated drilling rigs, flexible rod rigs, modular drilling rigs, etc. Despite the variety of rig types, the development of new rigs has one thing in common, that is, on the basis of paying attention to the performance of the rig, the rig's transport performance is gradually emphasized.
2) The scale tends to be polarized
Oil rigs have a bipolar development trend in scale, which is the enlargement of large-scale drilling rigs and the miniaturization of lightweight drilling rigs.
Deep-drilling rigs tend to be large-sized, with a drilling depth of 15,000 m and a maximum hook load of 12,500 kN. In order to improve the working efficiency of the lifting, the winch power tends to increase. Lightweight oil rigs tend to be miniaturized. In order to adapt to the exploration of oil and gas reservoirs in shallow seas, beaches, deserts and hilly areas, foreign companies began to develop modular drilling rigs in the 1960s.
3) The control tends to be automated
The gradual maturity of top drive and disc brake technology, as well as the gradual improvement of electric control technology, hydraulic drive technology and reliability, provide the possibility of automation of rig control, coupled with complex conditions such as ocean and deep well, drilling technology and the cost of drilling equipment requirements make rig control automation an important trend in the development of drilling rigs.
2.Development status of domestic oil rigs
At present, the variety and quality of China's oil rigs basically meet the needs of different regions and different depths in China. A number of domestically produced oil rigs have undertaken drilling operations abroad, and some have undertaken anti-contract drilling in domestic blocks and have been well received. From the perspective of domestic drilling rig production capacity, Baoji Petroleum Machinery Plant, Lanzhou Petrochemical Machinery General Plant, Sichuan Honghua Company mainly produce medium deep well drilling rigs; Jianghan Siji Factory mainly produces 3,000m shallow-loaded shallow well drilling rig; Nanyang Petroleum Machinery Factory mainly produces the vehicle-mounted and skid-mounted modular shallow well drilling rigs. The factory has produced more than 30 sets of 3 000 m vehicle-mounted drilling rigs. At present, there are more than 20 vehicle-mounted and skid-mounted drilling rigs in foreign countries. The ZJ20K drilling rig, which was led by Great Wall Drilling Company and produced by Nanyang Petroleum Machinery Plant, has been in operation since 1997 in Canada, well work, in good condition.
In addition, Beijing Petroleum Machinery Research Institute and Dagang New Century Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. completed the industrial test of DQ-30Y top drive. The top drive of ZJ70D developed by Beishi Institute has completed industrial trials of two wells in Karamay and Tarim.
3. AC variable frequency electric drive oil drilling rig (AC-GTO-AC oil drilling rig)
The AC variable frequency electric drive oil drilling rig is a newly developed one in foreign countries - an advanced electric drive oil drilling rig. This drilling rig has the incomparable superior performance comparing the existing mechanical driven drilling rig and the AC electric driven drilling rig in meeting the requirements of the oil drilling process.
1) Core technology - AC frequency conversion speed control technology
AC frequency conversion speed control technology is a comprehensive crossover technology involving motor theory, automatic control theory, circuit topology theory, power electronics technology, microelectronics and computer technology. Experts believe that AC variable frequency electric drive drilling rig is an organic combination of modern high-tech and oil drilling machinery, with strong vitality. It is the development trend of modern oil drilling rigs.
2) Outstanding features
①The winch and turntable of the drilling rig can realize stepless speed change, with wide speed regulation range. It can be constant torque output at very low speed. And it is beneficial to accident handling of downhole drilling tools, side drilling, workover, small drilling fluid displacement operation, and preferred parameter drilling.
②The short-time torque-increasing multiple of the motor can be 1.5-2 or more, which greatly improves the lifting capacity of the rig and the ability to handle accidents.
③Due to the constant power and wide speed regulation characteristics, the mechanical structure of the drilling machine can be greatly simplified.
④It has the function of limiting the drilling speed of the drill disc to prevent the drill or the machine from being twisted.
⑤The AC frequency conversion technology has a safety protection function for the motor.
⑥The load power factor is high, close to 1, with a soft start function to reduce the capacity of the power supply.
⑦In the case of loading, it can start, brake and speed smoothly; when drilling down, it can realize energy feedback to the grid, reduce braking device loss and save energy.
⑧The AC motor is small in size. The single unit capacity is laege. It is cheap and no carbon brush commutator, no need to be explosion-proof, low maintenance cost, safe and reliable to use, easy to operate and manage.
⑨It is easy to realize automation, intelligence and adaptive control of external changes.
⑩Easy to install, disassemble, and relocate.