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7 Tips for Excavator Maintenance

Views: 103     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2019-08-23      Origin: Site

Here are 7 compact excavator maintenance tips to maximize your uptime and safety.

1. Manufacturer manuals

One of your first tasks should be to review a machine’s operation and maintenance manual to become familiar with the machine’s safety features, instrumentation, controls, service schedules and maintenance points. Typically delivered and stored in an excavator’s cab, the operation and maintenance manual contains the official manufacturer recommendations. If you misplace your supplied copies, your authorized dealer can assist with ordering replacements.


2. Fluids and lubricants

An effective maintenance regimen starts with a daily check of fluids, including coolant, hydraulic fluid and engine oil. If any of these levels are low, be sure to refill with the manufacturer’s recommended type of fluid, paying particular attention to classifications, as well as viscosities for the operating environment. It’s also important to keep these areas dirt free and use clean rags while checking levels to avoid contaminants.


A machine system that’s experienced some of the most significant change is engines. Today’s compact excavators are equipped with various levels of emissions-compliant engines that may have unique lubrication requirements. Manufacturers are matching oils to their advanced engines to ensure the proper operation of exhaust after-treatment systems.


In addition to engines, it’s also important to regularly lubricate the machine at recommended intervals, taking into consideration the application and temperatures the machine will be working in. Manufacturers typically recommend the use of a quality lithium-based multipurpose grease to lubricate all key pivot points, including cylinders, booms, blades, buckets, arms and slew bearing components.

3. Filters

There are multiple filters on a compact excavator for the fuel, engine, air and hydraulic systems, and each may have different service intervals. When dirty or completely clogged, a filter can directly impact performance and compromise sensitive components. The majority of industry excavators have air filter restriction indicators designed for the purpose of alerting operators to maintenance needs. To avoid system contamination, it’s critical not to remove the filter until the required time.

4. Fuel

Most manufacturers specify the use of clean, high-quality No. 2 or No. 1 grade diesel fuel. Operators with machines that routinely operate in colder climates may prefer the option of specially formulated blends designed to prevent gelling. At a minimum, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel must be used in these machines to reduce exhaust emission levels. Depending on jobsite conditions, owners and operators need to also be aware of water separation that can occur in a fuel filter as a result of a lower quality fuel supply.

5. Undercarriage

Perhaps the most obvious wear item on the excavator undercarriage is the track. The majority of compact excavators use rubber tracks and the life expectancy of the track is largely dependent upon the environment they are subjected to and the user’s operating habits. Tracks should be examined on a daily basis to look for cuts, tears or areas that expose the steel imbeds. Any perforations could allow moisture or contamination to enter the track.


The most important undercarriage interval item to monitor is track tensioning. A loose track is likely to de-track and will be detrimental to its useful life. Your operation and maintenance manual will indicate ideal track tension ranges and the correct way to position the excavator for making adjustments.


While other undercarriage components may not need a daily inspection, regular monitoring of the components like idlers, rollers and sprockets can help identify potential problems. Accelerated wear on the sprocket is not common; however, it should still be checked periodically by examining the teeth. A good sprocket tooth has a rounded end, while a worn tooth is more pointed. This is especially important to check when installing a new set of tracks.


6. Cooling system

An effective cooling system relies on adequate airflow and appropriate coolant level. If either is lacking, it can lose performance, cause an overheat condition — or worse yet — accelerate engine damage. Proper cooling system maintenance includes checking the airflow through the system and checking coolant hoses for leaks. The radiator, oil cooler and condenser can be cleaned by applying low pressure air or water, but use care not to damage the radiator’s fins.


7. Electrical system

The electrical system of most compact excavators uses a 12-volt battery and fuses for the purpose of protecting this system in the event of an electrical overload. Always replace failed fuses with like kind and amperage rating. Battery cables should be tight and clean. Inspect for corrosion on the cable ends and the battery terminals. Prevention can typically be remedied with an appropriate dielectric grease.

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